What’s the Difference Between a Door Lining and a Door Frame?

A lot of people think a door lining and door frame are the same thing, yet while this confusion is justified, it’s not quite true.

What is a Door Frame?

A door frame goes around an external door. It’s formed of two upright pieces and one overhead piece, as well as a stop moulded into a given position, and compressible seals around the outer edge. This ensures maximum exclusion of draughts and water. 

The word ‘frame’ also implies a structural element; it’s there to hold the surrounding wall aloft.

What is a Door Lining?

A door lining does a similar job to a door frame, except it’s for internal doors

Door linings come with movable door stoppers, which will allow you to adjust the depth at which your door closes. Door linings don’t come with seals, which is why they’re used for internal doors instead of external doors. You might also see door linings described as door ‘casing’. This means the same thing.

So, What’s the Difference Between a Door Lining and a Door Frame?

To summarise, a frame goes around an external door, while a lining goes around an internal door. 

That said, understanding the difference yourself won’t be much use unless you’re talking to people who also know the difference! Even professional joiners can get these terms confused. It’s worth clarifying exactly what you’re talking about before you commission any work, or make a purchase.

What is a Pocket Door?

Most doors are formed of several common components including hinges, handles, and latches. Relatively few doors come with pockets.

So what is a pocket door?

A ‘pocket’ door is a door that’s positioned next to a vertical slot in the adjacent wall. By sliding the door into the pocket (a pocket door is a type of sliding door), it can disappear entirely from sight. 

Ensuite_pocket_door

How Much Does a Pocket Door Cost?

Pocket doors vary considerably in price, because the adjoining wall must be deep enough to accommodate the door. If you already have a suitable wall in which to form the ‘pocket’, then you can expect to pay between £400 and £800. For maximum flexibility, you’ll want to build the surrounding walls around the proposed location of your pocket door.

If you have to remodel an interior wall, you can expect this price to increase significantly. 

Demolition isn’t cheap – particularly if the wall in question is load-bearing, or contains electrical or waste pipes. As such, a pocket door is only going to be practical in certain homes. You should also factor in the cost of maintaining a sliding door, since it contains moving parts and carriages that traditional outward-opening doors lack.

That all said, there are many advantages to pocket doors – not least the fact they’re a fantastic space-saving option in many homes.

Left-Hand or Right-Hand Door? How to Tell the Difference

If you’re ordering a door that’s fitted with hinges (note that this isn’t an issue if you’re purchasing a door without hardware), it’s important that it arrives the right way around. While it’s possible to remove the hinges and re-insert them, it’s an extra hassle that you don’t need. So, before you click that buy button, you need to determine your door swing.

But that’s easy, right?

Well it is – but only once you know what to do.

Is a left-hand door one where the handle is on the left when the door’s closed? Or is it one that opens to the left?

To find out whether you have a left-hand or right-hand door:

  1. Open your door.
  2. Position yourself inside the door frame. 
  3. Put your back to the hinges. 

If the handle is on your left, it’s a left-hand door. If it’s on your right, it’s a right-hand door.

In other words, we’re describing the position of the hinges when the door is closed, and you’re looking at the door from the side that it’s opening away from. That’s why doors are divided into ‘right-hand hinge’ and ‘left-hand hinge’.

What is Lock Snapping and How Can You Prevent it?

Every front door needs a lock. It’s this essential feature that keeps your home secure while you’re out, and asleep. But not all locks are created equal. Some can be picked more easily than others, while some can be destroyed using brute force. This could mean using an angle-grinder or a power-saw, or it might mean taking a spanner and simply snapping a lock in half. 

This latter method is favoured on certain cylindrical euro-style locks. When the lock is in two pieces, the lock mechanism is exposed, and all the intruder has to do is move the lever back to open the door.

burglar snapping lock

How Common is Lock Snapping?

While lock-snapping isn’t quite as common as it once was – largely thanks to the introduction of newer, snap-resistant locks – according to police services across the country lock snapping is still a common way for intruders to enter the home.

Why is Lock Snapping Still Common?

So why is lock-snapping still such an attractive method of entry for would-be intruders? 

Lock Snapping is Fast

When you’re trying to break into the front (or rear) of a house, every second counts. The longer a burglar spends commiting a crime in full view of the street, the greater the likelihood they’ll be seen. Lock-snapping takes just a few seconds.

Lock Snapping is Easy

Another advantage of lock-snapping is that it requires no special training. You don’t have to spend hundreds of hours threading needles through practice-locks – all you need is a suitable tool and a little bit of brute-force.

Lock Snapping is Discrete

Compared with other methods of entry, like smashing in a window, lock-snapping is discrete. It won’t create much noise, or force the burglar to clamber through an awkward opening. It also doesn’t leave much in the way of forensic evidence, since clothes fibres won’t get snagged on jagged wood and glass.

How does Lock-Snapping Work?

One of the biggest advantages of a euro-cylinder is that it’s easy to replace. Changing the locks is a simple matter of sliding one lock out, and another one in. But this upside comes with a downside – it makes it easier for burglars to damage the lock, and slide the front half of it out – i.e. to snap the lock.

Is Your Door Lock at Risk of Being Snapped?

The euro cylinder is currently the most popular style of lock in the UK. It’s easy to tell whether you have one – from the outside it looks like a little metal circle, with a long section protruding from the bottom. It’s usually a single assembly with the handle. 

Note that cylinder locks are also used in nightlatch-style locks, but these aren’t usually vulnerable to lock snapping, as they offer little for the burglar to grip onto.

If you have a uPVC door, the chances are high that it’s equipped with a euro cylinder style lock. This is because it’s difficult to fit any other sort of lock into the material. uPVC can’t easily be drilled into or otherwise modified after it’s left the factory. Unfortunately this makes life pretty easy for burglars, who can see at a distance which locks they will or will not be able to snap.

However uPVC doors aren’t the only type of door to be fitted with euro cylinders. Some timber and aluminium doors also come equipped with this style of lock – specifically those found on older patio doors.

How to Prevent Lock Snapping

Worried about euro cylinder security? There are a few things to look out for to ensure your lock is snap-proof. 

The TS007 kite-mark

The first is the TS007 kite-mark, which usually sits next to the face of the cylinder and looks a little bit like a love-heart or an ice-cream-cone. It might be accompanied by one or more stars, which indicate quality. A three-star lock has been tested against snapping; a one-star lock has not. 

The SS312 diamond standard

To complicate things further, there’s another standard ensuring resistance to intruders – the SS312 diamond standard. This was launched in 2010 to deal with an epidemic of lock-snapping. The SS stands for ‘Sold Secure’, and it’ll be accompanied by an image of a diamond on the lock itself.

What makes a lock resistant to snapping?

Snap-resistant locks work in several ways. One is to simply use better materials. A manufacturer might also design the front of the lock to snap off in a separate piece, leaving the internal mechanisms of the door concealed.

Installation and lock snapping

Even the best-designed lock is vulnerable to snapping if it’s not installed properly. If the lock protrudes more than a few millimetres from the surface of the door, a would-be thief will have the opportunity to grasp it with a wrench. They’ll then have the leverage they need to force the lock apart.

Door handles and security

In addition to the lock, you should consider the door’s other hardware – especially the handle. Some handles are also kite-marked, or star-rated. If you want to treat security seriously, then fitting a two-star handle will give you close to the best possible security. At this point, a burglar will seek another point of entry – or, more likely, look for another house to target. 

For much the same reason, the police tend to recommend installing multiple locks onto the same door. That way if one of them is compromised, you have other locks as back ups. For best results, consider installing a night-latch as well.

How to Make Your Door More Secure

Your home’s front door is without doubt the most important piece of furniture you own. Without it, any burglar would be able to stroll right into your home.

But if your door is old or low quality, it might not do much to keep out intruders – so what are the best ways to make your front door more secure

door-1587863_1280

Upgrade Your Lock

Lock technology is constantly evolving, and making doors more resistant to attack. 

This is great news for homeowners – provided they’re willing to invest in an upgrade. 

Owners of older euro cylinder locks should be aware that intruders can simply snap the lock off with a tool, and open the door in five seconds flat. To avoid this, shop for a replacement high-security lock – one that comes with a TS007 kite-mark and three stars, or one which complies with the SS312 diamond standard. These should be fitted by a trained locksmith. 

Replace Your Door

If your door could potentially be kicked off its hinges, then it won’t be secure no matter how much you invest in locks. A kick-proof door is rarely made from uPVC, as those plastic panels can be easily broken with a boot (or a power-tool). If you’re worried about thieves trying to enter your home this way, you’ll need a door made from something a little more substantial.

A typical upgrade to a uPVC door would be an engineered or solid wooden door. These tend to cost more than uPVC doors, as they’re more difficult to manufacture, but as with most things in life, you get what you pay for.

Engineered doors tend to fare better than solid timber doors. That’s because an engineered door consists of a core made from many different lengths of wood, covered on both sides by a large, thin sheet of wood. This makes the door more affordable, and more resistant to warping. We’ve covered the difference between the two at length in this article.

The sturdiest doors tend to be composite doors. These are made from a mixture of woods, metals and plastics, and they strike a balance between weight and strength.That said, they’re not cheap, and they lack the distinctive finish of a real wooden door.

Fit a Deadbolt

Ideally you’ll want two locks on your front door – a spring-loaded lock, and a deadbolt. That way if one fails, you have the second lock as a backup. Adding a night latch will make your door even more secure.

Deadbolts got their name because they can only be moved by turning the key. The locks don’t contain a spring, so won’t return to their original position when you remove the pressure. The addition of a deadbolt can make a door twice as secure with minimal expenditure. Deadbolts come in a range of designs, some of which are more effective than others.

Single-Cylinder Deadbolt

The most common variety of deadbolt is the single-cylinder. From the outside the deadbolt can only be turned with a key. On the inside, there’s a latch instead. 

Double-Cylinder Deadbolt

A double cylinder deadbolt comes with two keyholes: one on either side of the door. Each can be rotated independently to move the bolt. On the downside, doors with double-cylinder deadbolts cannot be used as emergency exits when locked.

Horizontal Throw Deadbolt

A horizontal-throw deadbolt has a bolt that moves (you guessed it) horizontally. They can be either built into the door, or surface-mounted on the interior. They’re commonly used on wooden doors.

Vertical Throw Deadbolt

This type of deadbolt works a little bit differently. It comes with a small doorknob that can be worked up and down to move a vertical pin through a series of holes. They’re not the prettiest of locks, and they overlap the side of the door slightly, but they work well. 

Lengthen Your Door’s Set Screws

If you think your door is at risk of being kicked in, you can strengthen it by replacing the set screws that hold the strike-plate with something longer. 

Set screws are typically less than an inch long, but if you replace them with three-inch screws, the door becomes instantly more resilient. When a door is kicked in, the point of failure is typically the bolt ripping through its surroundings. If the strike plate is securely fastened, then this becomes impossible. 

Be Mindful of Glass

Nearby glass surfaces are vulnerable to being smashed, giving burglars a way into your home. You can strengthen these weak points by upgrading to tempered glass, or installing bars over it. 

Alternatively you could fit security film. This covers the rear of the glass so that in the event of an attempted break in, the glass remains in one piece. 

Bear in mind that this won’t prevent the glass from being shattered, but it will make it harder for a thief to gain entry through the hole.

Invest in Security Cameras

Home security cameras were once reserved for the super-wealthy, but now they’re affordable to most households. Better yet, many modern security cameras connect to your Wi-Fi and upload footage to a cloud server. 

In fact, even the sight of a front door security system provides an effective deterrent for most burglars.

How to Replace a Door Jamb

Door jambs should last for decades before needing to be replaced, but of course, accidents happen. You may be able to fix a broken door jamb using wood-filler and a bit of sanding paper, but in some cases you might have to install a new door jamb.

Read on and we’ll walk you through how to replace a door jamb – just bear in mind that if you’re going to attempt this, you’ll want the help of a volunteer (especially if you’re attempting it for the first time).

Removing a Door Jamb

Before you do anything else, you’re going to need to remove the existing jamb. 

There’s no point in measuring yet – it’s better to measure the opening rather than the old jamb, as the smallest discrepancy can lead to a door that catches on the floor, or the door lining.  

Before getting started, you’ll need to assemble a few materials. 

You’ll need:

  • A flathead screwdriver
  • A crowbar
  • Allen key
  • Hammer
  • A tape measure

Step 1: Remove the door

You can’t remove the jamb while the door’s still in the frame. 

To remove the door, pull out the hinge pins and lift the door out of its frame. You can do this by tapping them up from below using a thin Allen key and a hammer.

Make sure to leave the hinges attached to the jamb.

Step 2: Remove the trim

To access the frame, you’ll need to get rid of the trim. Work your way around the edges using your crowbar. Don’t use too much force or you risk splitting the trim in half.

Step 3: Remove the jamb

Here’s where you take out the jamb itself. It’ll be attached to the frame, either with nails or screws. If it’s the latter, use your screwdriver (or a drill with a screwdriver bit attached) to work the screws loose. If it’s nailed in place, pull out the entire jamb with your crowbar. 

Again, don’t use too much force.

How to Measure a Door Jamb

Now that you’ve removed the old jamb, you’ll need a tape measure. 

You’ll be measuring vertically, from the floor to the exposed header. Ideally, you want the two lengths to be within a few millimetres of one another. A small discrepancy might not be noticeable; a larger one will need correcting.

Next, measure the location of the hinges. You can do this using the length of jamb you’ve preserved, measuring from the end of the jamb to the centre of each hinge. Take several measurements to be sure.

Fitting a Door Jamb

To fit your door jamb, secure it into position on the hinge side first. Use screws rather than nails, as this will make it easier to adjust the jamb later on. 

You’re going to need a spirit level and a few carpenter’s shims to get the jamb totally vertical. 

You can use a set-square to ensure everything is properly aligned, before securing the jamb in place. You can then repeat the process on the other side.

Lastly, you need to attach the hinges. 

There’s quite a lot of potential for error here, so make sure your measurements are accurate, and that your hinges are going to align properly with those on the door. 

It might be that your hinge-pins don’t slide in easily at first. To compensate for this, just use your hammer (or better yet, a mallet) to force them into place (just a little bit of force is all that it takes). 

This is where your volunteer is going to come in especially handy – they can hold the door up, while you to slide it into position and drop it into the hinges. 

What is a Mortice Lock?

While it might only be a few inches from end to end, the lock on your front door is arguably the most important security feature in your entire home. 

Locks come in several varieties, each with their own strengths and weaknesses. One you’ve probably heard about is the mortice lock. These earned their name thanks to the pocket (or mortice) that the bolt slots into, which is cut into the internal face of the doorframe. When the bolt is in the mortice, the door is unable to move, and so is locked. 

Let’s take a look at how mortice locks work, and whether one would be a good fit for your front door.

mortice lockHow do Mortice Locks Work?

A mortice lock relies on a relatively large mechanism, which slots into the interior of the door. This means that the door in question must be of a certain thickness, in order to accommodate the lock. 

Inside this mechanism is a space for the bolt to retreat into, as well as a series of parallel levers which are attached to the rear of the bolt via a small piece of metal called a bolt-stop.

The cut of the key is designed to match the levers on the interior of the matching lock. If the right key is used, then all of the levers align, and the whole mechanism can be rotated to withdraw and extend the bolt. If the wrong key is used, the key either won’t fit into the lock, or it won’t catch all of the levers in the right way.

A mortice lock will also incorporate several other components. These include the strike plate, and a piece of metal surrounding the mortice. This ensures that the bolt slots straight in, rather than scuffing against the surrounding wood. 

There’s also the faceplate, which is often a separate piece of metal that attaches to the door, facing the strike plate. Finally, the escutcheon plates sit around the handle to preserve the look of the door. It serves no function beyond aesthetics.

What Type of Doors are Mortice Locks For?

Mortice locks are primarily found on external doors. They can, however, also be used on internal doors to control who has access to certain parts of the house. You might do this if, for example, you’re running a bed-and-breakfast, or you’d like to keep garage doors under lock and key for security reasons.

What’s the Difference Between a Mortice Deadlock and a Mortice Sashlock?

Mortice locks come in a few different varieties, the most common being deadlocks and sashlocks. 

Deadlocks are the simplest. They only have a keyhole, and a bolt that goes back and forth. 

Sashlocks, on the other hand, feature a handle-operated latch mechanism. This means you can open and close the door without having to use the key, but can still lock the door when you leave the building.

Are Mortice Locks Secure?

Mortice locks are popular for a good reason – they offer excellent security and reliability. But some mortice locks are more secure than others. The more levers there are inside the mechanism, the more difficult the lock will be to pick. Those with five levers or more are generally considered to be the standard mortice lock for external doors – though three-lever locks are cheaper to produce and buy, making them a good choice for internal doors. 

You can also buy seven-lever mortice locks, which are somewhat more secure than five-lever mortice locks.

The main thing to look for is a mortice lock that’s compliant with the BS3621 standard or above. This basically certifies that the lock is sturdy enough that it can’t be dismantled from the outside. Specifically, it should last for five minutes when a tester tries to drill or cut through the bolt, and the bolt will need to extend two centimetres into the mortice. Another thing to look for is the British Standard kitemark, which is the industry’s mark of quality.

The Metropolitan Police recommend combining a mortice deadlock with a double-locking nightlatch, so you have some redundancy when it comes to security. That way, if one device fails, you’ll have another to fall back on. Other police services offer similar advice.

Rear and patio doors are often targeted by thieves, as the intruder doesn’t have to try and gain entry in view of the street. These sorts of doors are generally supplied as a single unit that can’t be modified with additional locks. Modern patio doors are far more substantial than those of yesteryear, so if this is a concern, you might want to upgrade your French, sliding, or bi-fold doors.

So Should You Buy a Mortice Lock?

A mortice lock is a standard across the country, thanks to a robust and resilient design that’s stood the test of time. While the internal mechanisms will be of interest to engineers, most of us only think about our mortice locks when they stop working. Invest in one that’s of the required standard, however, and this is unlikely to happen! 

What is a Door Jamb?

Doors are pretty complicated pieces of machinery, comprising of multiple different parts – one of which is the ‘door jamb’.

Definition of a Door Jamb

Let’s start with a plain English definition of a door jamb: a door jamb consists of the posts which sit on either side of the door, forming the vertical portion of the frame.

annotated doorWhat’s the Difference Between a Door Jamb and Frame?

Simply put, the jamb is a specific part of the frame. It’s there to take the weight of the door, as well as help keep the rest of the frame square and stable. Your hinges are affixed to the jamb on one side of the door, while the bolt passes through the jamb on the other side.

Jambs aren’t just found on standard, single doors – they’re also part of sliding, folding, and double-doors, on which they serve much the same purpose.

The ‘plumbness’ of a jamb has a significant influence on the function of the door. Just a few degrees outside of 90°, and you’ll find that your door rubs against the frame, or that the bolt doesn’t properly align. If the surrounding walls aren’t entirely plumb, you can correct this with the help of a few strategically-placed shims.

It’s also crucial that the jambs are of the same height, and not too tall or too narrow – if so you might end up with excessive gaps (or no gaps at all).

Door Lites and Sidelites Explained

One of the best ways to add light and space (or a sense of space, at least) to the entrance of your home is by incorporating glass into your front door. There are, for the most part, two ways to do this:

  1. Installing glazing into the door itself.
  2. Installing glazing at the side of the door.

What is a Door Lite?

A door lite is a glass panel set inside a door. Each panel is considered a separate lite, even if they’re arranged to form a larger glass structure. 

A real lite is built into the door, though you can also find ‘faux’ lites, which are attached to the glass using snap-in grilles. The use of these devices substantially lowers the cost of manufacture, and in turn the door. This makes them a tempting option for homeowners on a budget. 

Grilles of this sort come in a range of different types, and can be arranged vertically or horizontally to suit your existing windows.

More elaborate patterns of lites can only be created if the glass is built into the door. If budget isn’t so much of a concern, it makes sense to invest in doors with real lites rather than fake ones (this is especially true when you come to sell, since it will up your property’s ‘kerb appeal’). 

What is a Sidelite?

A sidelite, on the other hand, is a window that’s designed to sit alongside a door. They’re used to create the illusion of size, and allow natural light into the home. 

On the downside, sidelites (as well as door lites, if they’re positioned low enough) allow those outside to see into the property. Stained or privacy glass can mitigate these concerns, as can curtains or blinds.

Transom Windows

Transom windows are a relation of sidelites, but instead of sitting alongsider the door, they sit just above it. Transom windows are a common feature in Victorian and Edwardian houses with higher ceilings. 

The picture below shows a door with door lites, sidelites, and a transom window.

front_door___Looks_welcoming__doesn_t_it____liz_west___Flickr

What Type of Glass is Used in Door Lites and Sidelites?

The glass used in sidelites is almost always toughened safety glass. It’s created using a special process which significantly increases its strength. 

Toughened glass is heated intensely and cooled rapidly, so that the interior of the panel sets at a different pressure than the exterior. This creates a differential force between the inside and the outside that needs to be overcome for the glass to shatter. What’s more, if the glass does shatter, this differential force will act like an elastic band, snapping back and shattering the window into thousands of tiny, dull chunks. This is ideal for homeowners with children or pets, that can hurt themselves on the sharp shards that standard glass breaks into.

Are Door Lites and Sidelites Secure?

One of the main reasons people cite for not installing door lites or sidelites is security. 

Of course, any areas of glass are weak points in the home – windows present similar risks and no-one’s going to live in a home without those.

That said, your property will be much more secure if door lites or sidelites are, as above, made from toughened safety glass. 

It’s also worth thinking about the positioning of the glass – ideally your door handle shouldn’t be accessible if a lite is broken.

If you’re particularly concerned about your sidelites or door lites, you might consider installing a security camera.

Major Cities and the Music They Inspire: Illustrated as Sound Waves

Music. It’s an art form that’s designed to invoke emotion, permeate the soul, and resonate beyond the words that are being said.

But what is music? Like, what is it really? A well-written song is great, but without the rhythm, tempo, and texture of sound, would we fall so madly in love with music like we do?

Looking specifically into the make-up of musical sound waves and the elements used to produce them, we discovered something rather beautiful. When in their visual form, sound waves produced through different frequencies of rhythmic sound are almost statuesque, architectural… like an imposing cityscape just waiting to be brought to life.

This got us thinking: is it possible to crossover music and architecture from a design perspective? With an elemental approach, we took a selection of songs that feature the names of different cities around the world such as New York, New York by Frank Sinatra and Freddie Mercury’s Barcelona.

Using specialist software, we were able to sample these songs, producing a visual which focused specifically on the part where the city name is mentioned. We then looked at the cities themselves, the landmarks they boast, and the unique architecture they’re famed for.

As a result, we were able to create a set of stunning illustrations that beautifully represent both the songs and the cities they pay homage to.

Barcelona

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Originally released in 1983, this Freddie Mercury song features vocals from operatic soprano Monserrat Caballé who provided the high pitched notes, complementing Mercury’s lower range vocals without fault. The haunting vocals and crashing instrumentals synonymous with grand amphitheatres and flamboyant gestures, provide the perfect timbre for a city steeped in Gothic and Medieval architecture.

London

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Some might say it’s a modern classic, but one thing is certain, this top 10 hit for Lily Allen depicts London’s diverse music scene without compromise. With a strong Caribbean influence, the smooth beats plus the high pitch interjection of trumpets during the chorus sends the sound waves soaring. Perfect for a city that is home to the neo-futurist dream and Europe’s tallest building, The Shard.

Miami

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As the song suggests, Miami “brings the heat” and this 2002 summer party classic from Will Smith certainly lives up to that. With strong Spanish and Cuban vibes, the sound waves created are smooth and deep, yet rhythmic high notes punch through to create a striking visual that’s almost reminiscent of the palm trees that line Miami’s famous Ocean Drive.

New York

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New York, New York; a Grammy award winning hit for Frank Sinatra that’s filled with optimism, positivity and the dream that New York is the place to make it happen. The city that never sleeps is a hub for opportunity and discovery. The sound waves produced are dense and wide ranging, tightly packed yet diverse, much like the city itself when viewed from across the Hudson River.

Philadelphia

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Famed for the signing of the Declaration of Independence and the home of the Liberty Bell, Philadelphia is the soul of the American dream. But the effects of capitalism are strong in Philadelphia, as depicted in this 1993 hit for Bruce Springsteen. The sound waves created by this melancholic number are shallow and largely consistent; a mindful nod to the humdrum and monotonous lives seemingly lead by a large portion of the city’s residents.

Las Vegas

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The most populated city in Nevada, Las Vegas is the epitome of fun and frivolity. Vibrant and voltaic, it’s hard not to get excited by the promise of a good time, and the titular song from Elvis Presley’s 1964 hit film mirrors this beautifully. Fast-paced and building in intensity, the sound waves created are jumpy and animated, which perfectly represent the varied and inspired landscape of this desert city.

Vienna

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A city filled to the brim with artistic and intellectual legacy, Vienna is a European powerhouse for creativity, with centuries of history in music and the arts tucked away on almost every corner. The 1980 Electropop hit for Ultravox channels the history of the city in an almost operatic fashion. With drawn out notes and high pitched vocals, they’re a stark contrast to the deep, rhythmic, drum beats that carry the song.